Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina, a sister of the Chimpanzees. Homo sapiens is believed to have arisen in Africa about 315,000 years ago. According to a report published in the Science journal, a research on the analysis of African DNA that spanned 10 years confirmed that the San people of southern Africa are likely to be the oldest population of humans on Earth. (Another group was traced to Tanzania.) The project found modern Africans had the most diverse DNA of all racial groups in the world, confirming the idea that Africa is the birthplace of humanity, according to Sarah Tishkoff of the University of Pennsylvania. Researchers in Israel have produced the Misliya jawbone which, if accepted that the bone belongs to the modern human, this will indicate that Homo sapiens diverged from other hominine species more than 500,000 years ago. Modern men, however, began to exhibit evidence of behavioural modernity around 50,000 years ago. 

 MESOLITHIC PERIOD(c. 12,000 – 9,000 years ago): Hunting and gathering period, human populations in many areas began to exploit a much wider range of foodstuffs, a pattern of exploitation known as the broad-spectrum economy. Intensively exploited foods included wild cereals, seeds and nuts, fruits, small game, fish, shellfish, aquatic mammals and birds, tortoises, and invertebrates such as snails. Dogs were domesticated during this period, probably for use in hunting. Familiar tools were the geometric microliths with bow and arrow technology, adz and axe, fishing weirs and traps, fishhooks, textiles, sickles, dugout canoes and paddles, sledges, and early skis.

NEOLITHIC PERIOD (c. 9,000 – 2,000 years ago): There was a rise in farming, which further encouraged the domestication of plants and animal and permanent residency. According to Encarta, well-studied early farming sites in Eurasia include Jericho, in the West Bank; Ain Ghazal, in Jordan; Ali Kosh, in Iran; Mehrgarh, in Pakistan; Banpocun (Pan-p’o-ts’un), in China; and Spirit Cave, in Thailand. Important African sites include Adrar Bous in Niger, Iwo Eleru in Nigeria, and Hyrax Hill and Lukenya Hill in Kenya. In the Americas, sites showing early plant domestication include Guila Naquitz, in Mexico, and Guitarrero Cave, in Peru. The pottery phase was recorded circa 7400 BCE. In addition, humans produced metal tools and ornaments from beaten copper and tin ores by 6,000 years ago marking the dawn of the Bronze Age. In Eurasia and parts of Africa, the rise of metallurgical societies appears to coincide with the rise of the earliest state societies and civilizations, such as ancient Egypt, Sumer, Minoan Culture, Mycenae, and China.

A case study of human early farming sites was discovered as follows: In 1965, an English archaeologist, late Prof Thurstan Shaw and his team hired a helicopter to make a historic visit to the thick forest of Isarun. Traditionally, this place is called Isarun Ile-Owuro, (Isarun the early land), a sleepy village in Ondo State, south-western part of Nigeria, about 20 kilometres to Akure and five kilometres to Igbara Oke. They worked rigorously and excavated bones of Stone Age man. The skeleton was confirmed as dating to about 13,000 years ago. However, the skull did not look like one from a recent human, particularly those living in West Africa today. Instead, it shared many similarities with African fossil skulls that date to more than 100,000 years ago. It is longer and flatter with a strong brow ridge; features closer to a much older skull from Tanzania thought to be around 140,000 years old.

In 1956, Professor Samuel Noah Kramer, one of the great Sumerologists of our time, reviewed the literary legacy found beneath the mounds of Sumer. The table of contents compiled From the Tablets of Sumer is a gem in itself. Kramer, in 1956, wrote History Begins At Sumer, wherein thirty-nine “firsts” in recorded human history were listed and discussed as extracted from the ancient Sumerian texts. The “firsts” are: The first schools, the first bicameral congress, the first historian, the first pharmacopoeia, the first "farmer's Almanack," the first cosmogony and cosmology, the first "Job," the first proverbs and sayings, the first “Moses,” the first literary debates, the first "Noah," the first library catalogue, Man's first Heroic Age, his first law codes and social reforms, his first medicine, agriculture, and search for world peace and harmony,” etc. According to Kramer in the 1963 book, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character by Samuel Noah Kramer states that “The Sumerians probably first began to write down their literary works about 2500 BCE, although the earliest literary documents as yet recovered, date from about 2400 BCE.”

The earliest settlement known in the Southlands was probably at Eridu, the foundations of which antedate the 'Ubaid Period (c. 4300—3500 BCE). According to Cambridge Ancient History, Nothing earlier than the first settlements at Eridu has yet been discovered in Babylonia. Man achieved an unprecedented civilisation in Sumer. The archaeologists discovered and date the foundation of the temple of Enki at Eridu circa 3800 BCE. Sumerian is the oldest known literary language of mankind, surpassing even Egyptian in age, so says another authority. Shortly after, humankind was granted the privilege to rule the earth and as such a calendar was designed at the temple of Enlil at Nippur to mark this era in 3760 BCE. This calendar was later adopted by the Jews and it stipulates the current year (2018) as AM 5778. AM, that is, Anno Mundi in Latin signifying "from the creation of the world". This indicates that the Jewish Masoretic Scripture recognises this date as the literary year that our world, or rather, mankind was created by the God of the Bible. Bishop James Ussher who was the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland between 1625 and 1656 established, by the mean of extracted biblical chronology, the time and date of the creation as "the entrance of the night preceding the 23rd day of October... the year before Christ 4004"; that is, around 6 pm on 22 October 4004 BC according to the proleptic Julian calendar.

From Wikipedia, under the title “Ussher’s Chronology”, it reads that “Ussher's proposed date of 4004 BC differed little from other Biblically-based estimates, such as those of Jose ben Halafta (3761 BC), Bede (3952 BC), Ussher's near-contemporary Scaliger (3949 BC), Johannes Kepler (3992 BC) or Sir Isaac Newton (c. 4000 BC). Ussher was influenced by the same account as the apocryphal Book of Jasher, dating the worldwide flood to 2349 BC and the birth of Terah in 2127 BC. The date of 4000 BC as the creation of Adam was at least partially influenced by the widely held belief that the Earth was approximately 5600 years old (2000 to Abraham, 2000 from Abraham to the birth of Christ, and 1600 years from Christ to Ussher), corresponding to the six days of Creation, on the grounds that "one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" (2 Peter 3:8). This tradition was believed to indicate that Jesus Christ would return in 2000 AD, more than six thousand years after 4004 BC. Modern proponents of this interpretation hold that the creation date 4004 BC could be inaccurate.

However, in Egypt, the year when human being founded the first Dynasty was put at about 3114 BCE and the first king was recognised as Mene or Meni. Some scholars put this event at a much earlier time. The pre-dynastic era was recognised as a period when those who ruled the earth were not humans but aliens who came to earth and established a colony some 500,000 years ago. The same set of beings were those who granted calendar and kingship to mankind in Mesopotamia circa 3760. We must not fail to acknowledge that according to current paleoanthropological thinking, human beings first appeared on the face of the Earth some two million-plus years ago.

In March 1987, Christopher Stringer of the British Museum, along with a colleague, Paul Mellars, organised a conference at Cambridge University to update and digest the new findings concerning "The Origins and Dispersal of Modern Man." As reported by J. A. J. Gowlett in Antiquity (July 1987), the conferees first considered the fossil evidence. They concluded that after a hiatus of 1.2 to 1.5 million years by Homo erectus, Homo sapiens made a sudden appearance soon after 300,000 years ago (as evidenced by fossil remains in Ethiopia, Kenya, and South Africa). Neanderthals "differentiated" from those early Homo sapiens ("Wise man") about 230,000 years ago, and may have begun their northward migrations 100,000 years later, perhaps coinciding with the appearance of Homo sapiens.” “It was discovered that, in addition to the DNA in the cell's nucleus, some DNA exist in the mother's cell, but outside the nucleus in bodies called "mitochondria". This DNA does not get mixed with the father's DNA; instead, it is passed on "unadulterated" from mother to daughter to granddaughter, and so on through the generations. This discovery, by Douglas Wallace of Emory University in the 1980s, led him to compare this "mtDNA" of about 800 women. The surprising conclusion, which he announced at a scientific conference in July 1986, was that the mtDNA in all of them appeared to be so similar that these women must have all descended from a single female ancestor. The research was picked up by Wesley Brown of the University of Michigan, who suggested that by determining the rate of natural mutation of mtDNA, the length of time that had passed since this common ancestor was alive could be calculated. Comparing the mtDNA of twenty-one women from diverse geographical and racial backgrounds, he came to the conclusion that they owed their origin to "a single mitochondrial Eve" who had lived in Africa between 300,000 and 180,000 years ago.” 

In a paper published by the journal Nature, a team comprising Allan Wilson, Rebecca Cane, and Mark Stoneking - of the University of California at Berkeley (later at Hawaii University), obtained the placentas of 147 women of different races and geographical backgrounds who gave birth at San Francisco hospitals, they extracted and compared their mtDNA. The conclusion was that they all had a common female ancestor who had lived between 300,000 and 150,000 years (depending on whether the rate of mutation was 2 per cent or 4 per cent per million years). "We usually assume 250,000 years," Cane stated.” “Cane and her colleagues proceeded to examine placentas of about 150 women in America whose ancestors came from Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, as well as placentas from aborigine women in Australia and New Guinea. The results indicated that the African mtDNA was the oldest and that all those different women, from various races and the most diverse geographic and cultural backgrounds, had the same sole female ancestor who had lived in Africa between 290,000 and 140,000 years ago. “In an editorial in Science (September 11, 1987) in which all these findings were reviewed, it was stated that the overwhelming evidence showed that "Africa was the cradle of modern humans. . . . The story that molecular biology seems to be telling us is that modern humans evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago." 

The first appearance of human beings some 2million years ago, the divergence of Homo sapiens from other hominines some 500,000 years ago and the claim by the Bible writers that mankind was created only some six millennium years ago are contradictory. Archaeology evidence is copious that support the 2 million years for the appearance of human-related beings as well as 500,000 - 300,000 years as a possible date when Homo sapiens became separated from other primates with an upright stance. If we accept the later as a plausible, then the biblical stand cannot be accepted at the same time because one is mutually exclusive of the other. Hence, in other not to disrespect the millions of people who sternly believe the validity of the Holy Book, the least one can do is to submit that the content of the Bible is an allegory. If allegory, then what is the true story and why was the Bible written in seemly coded languages of allegory, symbols and parables?  Alice C. Linsey, who is an anthropologist and a firm defender that God created the world of Genesis declares that “…..when Genesis speaks of Adam and Eve it speaks symbolically, not historically.” 

My humble observation and submission is that, if the Sumerian text King List gives or suggests that the origin of alien ‘kingship,’ that is, those who ruled “before the Flood” and the pre-dynastic personality of Egypt are traceable to 200 – 300,00 years, then, there is a valid reason to consider the alternative science’s postulation that the God of the Bible arose from the synthesized rules and functions of the gods and goddesses of the ancient civilisation. These stories as found in the ancient Sumerian, Egyptian, Akkadian, Babylonia, Greece and Roman, to climax in Christianity and Islam. With the great insight now provided by the research into the  “mitochondria eve,” mankind need to review human history to detect how the prevailing beliefs in each age has changed and how we arrived at the current ideologies, philosophy and religions. Only then can mankind take firm control of his future, be it in the immediate and in the New Age fast approaching. 

Tunji Adeeko

August 2018

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