The When, And Why Men Worship God, gods and goddesses
Imagine for a moment that you are lost in a vast desert with a bleak hope of making your way out alive. Then, your leg hits a hard object in the ground; you bend down, push back the sands only to pull out a seemly long-abandoned compass with a small map. Then the compass has a dangling tag with some inscriptions bearing the handwritten note of people who had previously found the compass saying things like: “this compass is misleading,” “this compass’ readings cannot be scientifically accurate,” “this compass cannot take you out of this deadly desert,” “this compass cannot help you!” In that state of confusion, you read the footpath of those who had condemned the compass and threw it away, you only found their carcass litter everywhere indicating that they never came out of the desert alive. Then, you sat down and study the compass and the map very carefully, taking note of its instructions. From where you are, you carefully drew a mental picture of your location, and then took some steps, following the guideline provided by the map; you moved more steps, and then more steps, running into days until one night you look all around you only to find flickers of what appeared to be a burning fire from a far distance….and half a day later, keeping your footstep in the direction where you saw the fire, you are back to civilisation.
The unique dramatisation of the Sumerian tablets by the late Zechariah Sitchin caught my attention. His fantastic work though labelled as fantasy in some quarters, I rather took my time to digest its content and attempted to enter his mind. He appeared convinced about his peculiar interpretations and would lay down his life that they are true. Somehow, I set out to identify the projected landmarks this great man laid out: if Nibiru orbit crosses our solar system once in a Shar which is 3,600 earth years, then, there must have been at least two visits in the past five thousand years. To find the precise timing would, therefore, mean the discovery of two moments when crucial decisions were made for the Earthling by the extraterrestrial beings called the Anunnaki. In addition, it would be easy to find out how those decisions have impacted on human’s affair. While the work of Zechariah Sitchin had compelled me to review human history in the immediate past three to five millenniums, I cannot but agree that a divine hand had actually led me all the way. For the sake of those who are not familiar with the work of Zechariah Sitchin and what the Sumerian clay tablets stood for, I have summarized, after a careful study of his work and few other sources; and upon this foundation I built my new findings – an updated work, so to say. May the mind of the Earthlings be fully illuminated that we may all live in love, justice and truth.
The events here narrated took place about 445,000 years ago according to Sumerian clay tablets. The tablets are dated to circa 2500 BCE. This was long before Abraham was called out and Moses became the Law Giver unto the nation of Israel. When the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (668-633 B.C.) was unearthed with over 25,000 clay tablets recovered, the long forgotten ancient world came to light and one of the sources of Bible stories was uncovered. By the efforts of many individuals, and institutions, the contents of the Sumerian tablets were deciphered and translated. The story is about the Anunnaki, the extraterrestrial beings who embarked on the interplanetary expedition to Earth from their home planet called Nibiru to look for gold in order to cure their hazardous atmosphere.
The first team of the Anunnaki that came to the Earth was led by E.A. and their spacecraft was piloted to land on the ocean water of the Persian Gulf. They all wore eagle helmet and fish suit, disembarked and waded to the shore. For the first six days on Earth they carried out various activities and on the seventh day they rested and marked it as a standard of measurement – one week. Their first settlement was Eridu, the present day south of modern Ur (Tall al-Muqayyar) in Iraq. They then began to pump the water of the Sea through a machine built into their spacecraft to extract the gold particles in the water. After seven days they got Iron, Copper with very little quantity of gold.
After many shars, Nibiru was not pleased. EA then enquired where the ‘neck’ of Tiamat would be, in his skybird (aircraft) he soared into the sky to find where Tiamat was cut asunder. EA’s extensive search and aerial survey identified that AB.ZU (Southeastern Africa region) is the neck of Tiamat where the golden vein streams; however, it will require mining deep into the bowel of the Earth to retrieve the gold. He communicated his finding to the home planet and the King came down with Enlil and another batch of Igigi with equipment. After much deliberation, they had to cast a lot to know who would oversee specific responsibility. Finally, it was decided that King Anu would go back home, Enlil will oversee activities at E.DIN (Mesopotamia) while Enki would go to Africa.
Not too long after this Ninmah (“Great Lady”) was sent to Earth with another batch of female nurses. On her way, she stopped over at Lahmu (Mars) only to discover that Anzu was half dead while Alalu was dead. She revived Anzu while Alalu was given a befitting burial - a rock, carved to resemble Alalu's face wearing the eagle helmet serves as his tomb. Thus, he became the first Nibiru king to die in exile. To Anzu was provided more workers to build a station for the transportation of gold from the Earth routed through Mars to Nibiru. More equipment and workers did Ninmah promise to deliver to enhance the facilities at Mars. Ninmah arrived on the Earth with seeds to be sown for food and herbs for curing ailments.
While Enki had first settled at Eridu, he later built his abode at Africa in order to oversee the mining activities. It was at Nibru-ki (Nippur) did Enlil build his abode and a Mission Control Centre. He also built Beacon cities at Larsa and Lagash. At Shurubak was a healing centre established for Ninmah. By trick Sud (one of Ninmah’s nurses) seduced Enlil and Enlil deflowered her. However, Enlil was accused of rape and exiled. While in exile Enlil found the seven Weapons of Terror which Enki took from Alalu’s celestial chariot. Enlil was later recalled from the exile when he agreed to marry Sud. She was then given the title NINLIL (“Lady of the Command). On the other hand, Ninmah followed Enki to Africa and unto him, she had one daughter and not a son that Enki desired for an heir. Before she came to Earth, she had a son named Ninurta for Enlil. In Africa, with his team, Ea/Enki established a Science Research Centre, “The House of Life” it was called and manned by one of Enki’s son, Ningishzidda. At Bad-Tibira Ninurta built a Metal City where gold is smelted and refined, they are then sent to Mars by rocket ship and by ‘celestial chariots’ (interplanetary spacecraft) to Nibiru. This innovation gave room for the transportation of lesser volume of material and the transport of more workers who are fresh with eager hands, to replace the tired ones.
A time came when the Igigi mutinied, the leaders were called to Abzu and the report of the complained was beamed to Nibiru. At the meeting, Enki suggested that Primitive Workers (lulu) could be created. The leaders were appalled; to tamper with nature was not deemed a good venture. Enlil saw it as an attempt to play ‘God’ (Father of All Beings). But then Enki explained that the ‘material’ was already in existence, in the forest roams are a wild being akin to the Anunnaki. If they could augment its life essence with that of the Anunnaki, it can be upgraded to becoming an intelligent Primitive Worker. Ninurta was of the opinion that more sophisticated tools and new equipment should have been fashioned instead of creating a new being. The demand for more gold and the repeated complaints from the Igigi prevailed over Enlil and the other leaders to agree, Anu also agreed. Enki, Ninmah, and Ningishzidda began the experiments. They extracted ‘life essence’ from the blood and semen for the purpose of in vitro fertilization. The embryo is then inserted into the womb of the wild hominid females, but this did not produce a viable offspring. After many trials and failures, the last option was carried out, this time around, the fertilized egg was inserted into a female Anunnaki (Ninmah) – only then was a viable offspring produced. This hybrid, the Earthling, was called Adamu (One Who Like Earth’s Clay Is), reddish in colour. In furtherance of the great work, Ninmah called her medical officers and seven of them volunteered to surrogate a reproduce of Adamu, seven male Adamu. By the words of Enki, a female counterpart was to be created and this time around, Enki insisted that only by DAMDIKA who was given the title Ninki (“Lady of Earth”), his wife, will the first female be produced. However, Ninki had to be operated upon at the expiration of the nine-month pregnancy when there was a delay. And, alas, a female hybrid was born. Ninki gave the female child the name Ti-Amat (the Mother of Life). Extracting life essence from the blood from Ti-Amat, another seven females were fashioned through surrogate mothers. Adamu and Ti-Amat were transported to Eridu in E.din for all to see – Enlil, Ninurta, Ninlil, all the Anunnaki, and from Lahmu (Mars) Marduk came to behold the wonder. So also are the many Igigi elated that Primitive Workers had finally been created to ease their task. At Abzu, however, Ningishzidda kept the seven pairs of the hybrids in a restricted environment to feed and watch them grow. He observed that they mate but there was no sign of conception.
The trio of Enki, Ningishzidda and Ninmah were worried and then they met to discuss why the hybrids were not procreating. They brought each of the male and female and study their life essence of the two entwined serpents (DNA). This was compared with that of a male and female Anunnaki, then it was observed that the life essence of the hybrid only contain twenty-two branches on ‘Tree of Life’, the ability to procreate they did not have. After much search Ningishzidda came up with a possible solution, Adamu and Ti-Amat were brought into the House of Healing where all the four of Enki, Ninmah, Adamu and Ti-Amat were put to sleep. From the rib of Enki the life essence was extracted and inserted into the rib of Adamu; also from the rib of Ninmah the life essence was extracted and inserted into the rib of Ti-Amat. With procreating power, their life essences are now entwined. Ningishzidda woke them all up, Adamu and Ti-Amat were allowed to roam freely in Edin’s orchards. The two became aware of their nakedness and Ti-Amat made aprons from leaves for a cover. Enlil notices the behavioural change and made an enquiry to know what happened. Enki explained everything but Enlil was furious; he never liked the idea of making the wild Beings intelligent and now the Anunnaki have empowered the hybrids to procreate on their own. Out of E.din to Abzu he banished them.
Earthlings proliferate, working in the mines and as servants. Enlil's son, Nanna married Ningal and gave birth to twins; Utu and Inanna. They were born on Earth and the Anunnaki couples bear more offspring. Very frequently were the Earthlings giving birth to children; in one shar three or four generations of the Earthlings procreate. They were well adapted to the heat and dust and of the backbreaking mining of gold, they did not grumble. The Anunnaki, unlike when they were in Nibiru, grow and age quickly on Earth. As more offspring are born, tasks are allocated to the leaders and the children. Food was becoming much in demand. Then there was a climatic change and many damages were done to the Anunnaki’s facilities both on Earth as well as in Mars. The facilities at Mars had to be shut down, and in addition to the Metal City at Bar-Tibira, a new Chariot Place in the Edin was established at Sippar, the Bird City and to Utu (the grandson of Enlil) it was given to command circa 150,000 BCE. The new Chariot Place was to enable direct journey and transportation of gold from Earth to Nibiru.
Anu came down to inspect the facility and promised to put an end to the Earth Mission as soon as sufficient quantities of gold are piled up. To hasten the quick completion of the Mission, Ninurta went to Abzu to kidnap Earthlings in order that they would take over all manners of chores. Enki encountered two female Earthlings in the field and mate them. In nine months’ time, one bears a son, Adapa (Foundling), and the other bears a daughter, Titi (One with Life) – at Dawn and Dusk were they born respectively. Adapa, highly intelligent, becomes the first Civilized Man. Ninki tutored the girl while Enki tutored the boy himself. Enki requested from Anu to send seeds to be sown and ewe that will become sheep that the civilised man can be taught farming and shepherding. Adapa and Titi mate and had two sons: Ka-in (He Who in the Field Food Grows) and Abael (He of the Watered Meadows). Enki was very joyous and he communicated the successful procreation to Nibiru. Anu demanded that Adapa should be sent to Nibiru for him to see. The Anunnaki leaders on Earth appointed Ningishzidda and Dumuzi (Biblical Tammuz) to accompany Adapa so that the young duo would see Nibiru for the first time. On arrival, Adapa refused to eat or drink anything offered to him in Nibiru as instructed by Enki. By this attitude, Anu was puzzled. However, in a secret letter, Enki reveals Adapa's parenting truth to Anu. Enki justifies his deed by the need for more food. Adapa, being human was denied access to eat long life food or drink long life water of Nibiru. Adapa was sent back to start farming and shepherding. Enlil and Enki create crop seeds and sheep lines. Ninurta teaches Ka-in crop cultivation. Marduk teaches Abael shepherding and tool making. Before this period, there was no lamb or goat on Earth until Dumuzi brought them on his return trip from Nibiru. At the time of the first harvest, Ka-in and Abael presented a special meal as offerings unto the Anunnaki. The Anunnaki who had not tasted the meat delicacies for a long time commended and relished the great taste. While Abael was happy and became boastful, Ka-in, on the other hand, sulks. The anger and disaffection they kept in their mind. “When summer began it was not raining, the meadows were dry, and the pasture dwindled. Into the fields of his brother Abael, his flock drove, from the Furrows and the canals to drink water. A fight ensued and Ka-in picked up a stone and struck his brother’s head and he died. He sat and cried but his brother he could not revive. Titi, by premonition she knew of the killing, in her sleep she dreamed and saw Abael’s blood on Ka-in’s hands. She told Adapa her dream and they set out looking for the brothers. In the field, they found Ka-in, by the dead Abael he was still seated. All of them were in great grieved. Enki was informed and judgment he passed on Ka-in: “From the Edin, you must depart, among Anunnaki and civilized Earthlings you shall not stay.” As regards Abael, his remains must not be left in the open field but to be buried according to the custom of the Anunnaki. Enki showed Adapa and Titi how to bury Abael. Ka-in was banished to the Eastward. “That his life must be spared, he and his generations shall be distinguished! By Ningishzidda was the life essence of Ka-in altered: that his face a beard should not grow.” To Ka-in was his sister Awan espoused. Adapa and Titi, in all, had thirty sons and thirty daughters and the offspring intermarry and they all labour for the Annunaki. On his deathbed, Adapa blesses his son Sati (He Whom Life Binds Again) [biblical Seth, the third born of Adapa] as his heir. Sati got a spouse, Azura, and they had a son named Enshi (Master of Humanity). They were all taught different things by the Anunnaki, and the Earthling began to address the Anunnaki as Lords.
Enkime (the biblical Enoch), an Adapite, was taken by Marduk to Lahmu (Mars) and twice did Enkime make the trip to the celestial abode. Enkime has a daughter named Sarpanit and to her, Marduk took to liking. He desired her to be his spouse. All the leaders of the Anunnaki disagreed, in anger, they spoke one after another. The matter was beamed to Anu in Nibiru. If Marduk is adamant on marrying the Earthling, from the Nibiru a prince he must be barred, was the command. To the supreme command, all the leaders bowed. In addition, however, Enki to Enlil insists that the wedding cannot take place in Edin. Ninki arranged a befitting wedding celebration for Marduk and Sarpanit in Eridu, it was like a coronation. The host of Igigi from Lahmu (Mars) arrived in large number – about two hundred out of three. During the wedding they schemed, to put an end to their deprivation and loneliness they purposed to put an end. At a prearranged signal they abducted the female Adapites and demanded that they should be allowed to marry them, just like their leader, Marduk. Marduk was in full support but the other Anunnaki leaders were enraged. But to accept they had no choice; and another request the Igigi made was that because of the unbearable condition that Mars had become, they should be allowed to settle down with their wives on Earth. This was granted. Marduk and Sarpanit had two sons, Asar and Satu, and they were granted the land north of Abzu (mid-Africa region?). Some of the Igigi too were given the domains in the dark-hued land (Africa).
From Anu, Enki sought permission that he and Marduk should be allowed to explore the Moon. King Anu consented and in a rocket ship, they journeyed. However, they stayed back for a very long time without disclosing the purpose of visit to Ninurta and Enlil. The duo began to suspect that Enki and Marduk were planning on inheriting the Earth. Ninurta, therefore, went and look for Ka-in and his people and in order to win them over, they were taught many crafts. At this time Galzu, the “emissary plenipotentiary of King and Council of Nibiru” visited the Earth, he gave a negative report that the Anunnaki who had stayed for long on Earth are not adjusting well to their home planet conditions upon their return trip: “Their bodies to Nibiru cycles were accustomed no longer, their sleep was disturbed, their eyesight was failing, the net force of Nibiru weighted their walk.” The emissary who claims to be Ninmah’s schoolmate back in the day was still looking young like a son while Ninmah has grown to be an aged mother. The trio of Enki, Enlil and Ninmah were commanded to remain on Earth; they are to return only to die in Nibiru. At about this time the Earth condition was experiencing a great calamity which necessitates the evacuation of all the Anunnaki. To Enlil, this was the appointed time for the Earth and Earthling to perish following the unbearable situation the interplanetary breeding had produced. Enlil, therefore, demanded that all the Anunnaki leaders should take an oath that the oncoming calamity would not be revealed to the Earthlings. While awaiting the great flood that is due upon the Earth, Enki spoke to Ninmah, saying: “Let us, you and me, their seed of life preserve, their life essences for safekeeping extract!” While Enki and Ningishzidda worked at Abzu, Ninmah worked at Shurubak. “Of each kind two by two, two by two they in Shurubak and the Abzu preserved, for safekeeping while in Earth circuit to be taken, thereafter the living kinds to recombine.”
Enki had a mysterious dream wherein Galzu in a great brightness appeared to him and instructed him to save the Earth through, Ziusudra [a son of Enki by an Earthling (the biblical Noah)]. Without breaking the oath he was to instruct his son “A boat that the watery avalanche can withstand, a submersible one, to build him tell.” Besides the vision-dream, “a design of a curious-shaped boat upon the tablet” was left by Enki’s bed. Unto Ziusudra Enki communicated; “Make sure that the boat shall be roofed throughout, the sun from the inside must not be seen. The tackle must be very strong, the pitch strong and tight to ward off the water. Let the boat be one that can turn and tumble, the watery avalanche to survive! In seven days build the boat, into it your family and kinfolk gather.” “Into the boat Ziusudra, his spouse and sons made embark, their wives and children also came.” Enki has six sons namely Marduk, Nergal, Gibil, Ninagal, Ningishzidda, and Dumuzi. It was Ninagal whom Enki saddled with the responsibility to navigate the boat for Ziusudra. “A box of cedarwood in his hands he (Ninagal) held, by his side in the boat he kept it; the life essences and life eggs of living creatures it contains, by the lord Enki and Ninmah collected, from the wrath of Enlil to be hidden, to life resurrect if Earth be willing!”, Ninagal explained to Ziusudra. The Flood came in the one hundred and twentieth shar after the Anunnaki had journeyed to the Earth, circa 13,000 years ago. The calamitous condition aided the ice mountain to fall into Earth Sea to cause untold Deluge.
When the flood had ceased Ziusudra made an altar and upon it, he killed a ewe-lamb, one without blemish for a sacrifice to Enki. At about the same time, Enki and Enlil came down in Whirlwinds (helicopter-like aerial vehicles of the Anunnaki) to the peak of Ararat. They perceived the whiffs of fire and roasting meat and Enlil was puzzled. He saw the boat of Ziusudra, the altar, the survivors and Ninagal the boat’s navigator. Towards his brother he was angry. Enki denied breaking the oath and besides, Ziusudra is his son. He then narrated his dream-vision and to this Enlil was further puzzled and became calmed. All other leaders accepted that it was perhaps the will of the Creator of All to preserve Mankind. Ninmah swore that Mankind shall never be annihilated again. Enlil took the hands of Ziusudra and Emzara his spouse and blessed them. After the Flood, all the previous landscapes and settlements were buried.
Nannar from the Moon came down and Marduk from Lahmu (Mars) and so were all other Anunnaki and Igigi who dispersed in the sky when the Flood was coming. They searched for where the samples of the life essence were buried to retrieve it and start life anew on Earth. Unto the Anunnaki “the chest that Ninagal had carried he unveiled, its surprising contents to all he announced: the life essences and life eggs, in the wombs of the four-legged animals from Ziusudra's boat can be combined, Sheep for wool and meat will multiply, cattle for milk and hides will all have, then with other living creatures the Earth we shall replenish!” Then came the news from Nibiru, the calamity that befell the Earth did not spare Nibiru. The home planet is in dire need of more gold. With all the mining sites buried, it was impossible to get any. Like a miracle Ninurta while in the mountains of cedars, in the mountains beyond the oceans he stumbled on the mountainside which the avalanche of waters had cut deep and laid everywhere were uncounted gold, in nuggets large and small, without mining they can be hauled. While they were contemplating where they would get sufficient hands to gather the gold, Ninurta gave the cheering news, many descendants of Ka-in had survived the Flood; on rafts, they were saved.
After the Flood, the Earth was divided: unto Enlil and his progeny was given the northern hemisphere while unto Enki and his progeny was given the Southern hemisphere. In the Constellations of the Lion (10,660 – 8,500 BCE) was the Pyramids built by the Anunnaki. Enki became Ptah unto the Egyptians and Marduk was Ra. When the Anunnaki fled to Lahmu while the Flood lasted, they made a strong bond with the Igigi. Upon their return to the Earth after the Flood, the offspring of Marduk married those of the Igigi leader, Shamgaz. It so happened that Marduk’s grandson Asar (Osiris) married an Igigi, Asta (Isis) and another grandson Satu (Seth) married the second daughter Nebat (Nephthys). Asar made his abode with Marduk in the dark-hued land (Africa) while Satu (Seth) lived in the Mesopotamia close to the dwelling place of the Igigi. Shamgaz, however, had his eyes upon the land of Africa and incited his brother-in-law to take the land for the Igigi. Shamgaz and Satu prepared a great banquet and invited Asar, they got him drunk and made him lie in a coffin which was then carefully tight-sealed and thrown into the sea. When the news reached Marduk and Asta they made a frantic search for the coffin. When the coffin was found, Osiris was dead. Marduk with his wife Sarpanit and Asta wept bitterly. Asta (Isis) requested for a revenge of her husband’s death and a seed from Marduk to keep an heir in memory of the late husband. Enki and Marduk frowned at the last request, rather, they suggested that Satu (Seth) must be saddled with the responsibility of preserving a seed for his late brother. Isis was baffled and was in distraught with their strange thought; she, however, vowed to discordance their submission. Before the body of Osiris was wrapped and preserved in the shroud in a shrine, Isis extracted the life seed from Osiris’ phallus and with it, Isis made herself to conceive in order that she might preserve an heir and avenger to Osiris. She hid the boy when he was born and called his name Horron (Horus). When Shamgaz and Seth got to know that Osiris left behind an heir, they became angrier and plot the boy’s death. Gibril, Enki’s son adopted Horus and trained him. In a battle, Seth shot Horus and he died. Isis in a great travail called upon Thoth (Ningishzidda) for help and Thoth resurrected Horus. Thoth also trained, equipped and strengthened Horus to face his uncle. To a fiery fight, he challenged his uncle and fought him greatly in battle. He blinded Seth, squashed his testicles and put him in a chain. Horus was celebrated; he was to inherit the throne of his father though born from an Igigi. Marduk and Sarpanit had another son and he was named Nabu (Prophecy Bearer).
After this period, Enlil called his three sons, that is, Ninurta, Nannar, and Ishkur to deliberate on the happenings on the Earth. They all agreed that since Enki had taken possession of the land of the Pyramid and the Igigi are aiming to occupy Mesopotamia, it became very important and urgent for them to construct another Landing Place (a spaceport) in a secret location where gold can freely be transported to Nibiru and where they can also ascend and descend at will. Shortly after this period, Dumuzi (Enki’s last born) and Inanna (Nannar’s daughter and Enlil’s granddaughter fell in love. It was a great affair and they composed for each other love songs. Enki allotted a large domain to Dumuzi, Meluhha (Ethiopia?), the Black Land it was called. Dumuzi became very dear to Enki after the death of Asar (Osiris) and Inanna was greatly beloved by Enlil. “Beautiful beyond describing she was, in martial arts with Anunnaki heroes she competed.” All, except Maduk, gave their blessings to the union, and in many gifts were they lavished. To all the fanfare Marduk was wrath, in his opinion, Inanna was over-ambitious; the Enlilites were coming to encroach into the land of the Enkites. How would he stop this? He had a pact with Geshtinanna, his sister, to seduce Dumuzi to sleep with her and she would claim that he raped her. True to plan Dumuzi was visited by Marduk’s guards to arrest and imprison him for raping his sister. In a series of twist and attempt to outwit his brother’s guards, Dumuzi fell by a dam and died, his body was washed afloat. Everyone wept for what had befallen Dumuzi. Inanna, in her fury, was determined to fly to Abzu (Africa) to retrieve Dumuzi’s corpse. On getting to the precinct’s gate, her sister, Ereshkigal, who was married to Nergal (Enki’s second son) ensured that Inanna was fully disarmed before she reached her presence. Powerless and almost naked, she stood begging her sister but Ereshkigal remained furious. She accused Inanna of travelling to Africa to have an heir by her husband. In a fury, Ereshkigal commanded Tarmar, her vizier, to unleash “sixty diseases” on Inanna and she died. The whereabouts of Inanna became unknown to everyone; from Enlil to Nannar, everyone was worried. Enlil sent words to Enki to help fish out Inanna, Enki from Nergal extracted the truth about what happened. Enki then created two robotic beasts to go in search of Inanna and bring her back either dead or alive. Ereshkigal attempted to destroy the two beasts sent by Enki but they could not be overpowered because they had no blood in them. It was these beasts that took the corpse of Inanna back. However, she was revived and she went back to Abzu to collect all the weapons that were removed from her at the precinct’s gate: she demanded for the body of Dumuzi and gave it a befitting burial in the Black Land. She then returned to Enki, demanding for a revenge of her husband’s death, the death of Marduk she wanted in return. Enki was reluctant to give up Marduk to be put to death after losing Asar (Osiris), Satu (Seth), and Dumuzi his last born.
When Inanna realised that Enki would not punish Marduk, she flew back to Mesopotamia, to her father and cried to heaven for revenge. Nannar, her father, Utu, her twin brother, Ninurta, her uncle and Enlil, her grandfather rose to support her and word was sent to Enki to produce his son. Enki, however, viewed the case differently, “Though evil did Marduk instigate, by ill fate, not by Marduk's hand, did Dumuzi die.” Turning to his children he said, “from death by Ninurta's gang by us all he must be protected!” Gibil and Ninagal agreed with their father, Ningishzidda opposed and promised only to be involved if a life is at risk. Nergal was hesitant. “It was after that that a war, of ferocity unknown, between the two clans, (Serpentine clan versus the Eagle clan) erupted, it was a battle between Anunnaki, Nibiruan-born among them, on another planet was loosed.” It was a very fierce battle in which all kinds of deadly weapons were used. It was in this battle that Horon’s (Horus) right eye was damaged when he came to support his grandfather. Into the Pyramid, Ekur (House Which Like a Mountain Is) Marduk ran into and hid. When further pursued into the Pyramid, he went into the innermost chamber and released the stone to bar all. No stone smasher could reach him and neither can he easily release himself. The trio of Inanna, Ninurta and Ishkur further released additional blocking stones to plug in Marduk as in a tomb to seal. “Away from the Sun and light, without food or water, Marduk within the Ekur alive was entombed.” Sarpanit, Marduk’s wife, with her young son Nabu in her hand went from Enki to Utu, and Nannar to beg Inanna to release her husband. Inanna will hear no word of appeasing, let Marduk die for his sin she retorted. It took Ninmah who summoned Enki and Enlil to broker a peace. She demanded that instead of death, let Marduk live in exile and in his stead Ninurta will be the successor on Earth. “Enlil by her words was pleased and smiled: Ninurta was his son, of Ninurta she was the mother!” To Enki, it was a fair judgment, an exile is better than being dead, if the sacrifice will be a succession, so be it. Enlil demanded further, “All facilities that heaven and Earth bond, to my hands alone must be entrusted” and in addition, the mastery of “the Land of the Two Narrows” (The lands along the Nile River) must be entrusted to another son who did not take part in the war. “All the land under the control of the Igigi who followed Marduk must be given up and abandon, to a Land of No Return, by no descendant of Ziusudra inhabited, must Marduk in exile go!”
After all said and done, Ningishzidda (Thoth) who alone knows the inner fashioning of the Ekur (the Great Pyramid) was called to come and rescue his brother. The near-impossible task did Ningishzidda accomplished to liberate his dying brother. When Marduk was released and revived, upon hearing the terms for truce he became very angry “I would rather die than my birthrights forfeit!” he shouted. However, the judgment of the Anunnaki leader he must follow and to exile, he departed with his wife and son, Nabu. Ninurta stripped the pyramids of their crystals and equipment and the Great Pyramid was rendered useless, bare and void, without its apex stone. It has been left standing as a mute witness to the defeat of its defenders. To Ninurta was granted Enlilship powers to be the surrogate of his father in all the lands. Ishkur was also granted lord over the Landing Place in the Cedar Mountains. Nannar was granted all the lands where the Igigi had previously occupied and the Peninsula where the Place of the Chariots was. Utu was made the commander of the Place and of the Navel of the Earth. In the Land of the Two Narrows Enki granted Ningishzidda to lord over. During these periods, the Earthlings proliferated and intermixed with the Anunnaki.
Once more Anu decided to pay a visit to the Earth, from all inhabitable Earth their dwellers came to welcome the King. The temple of Enki in Eridu was rebuilt circa 3800 BCE, decorated with gold and silver and precious metals. The twelve constellations by their signs were marked out. To Enlil and Ninlil, a next Nibiru-Ki atop the mud and silt was established (at Nippur). At Abzu Enki kept the ME formula strictly guided. At Nippur Enlil strictly guided the ‘Tablets of Destinies’ For Anu, a pure white structure was built – the House of Anu. Upon his arrival, all rose up to receive him. Despite that in greater Shars he was their parents he looked much younger than his children – the two sons looked old and bearded; Ninharsag, once a beauty, was bent and wrinkled. A great banquet was put together for him. They mentioned Galzu to Anu, his supposed ‘emissary plenipotentiary of King and Council of Nibiru’ who confined the great leaders to Earth and sent Enki to save Ziusudra from the Flood. To their amazement, Anu did not send such an individual. They were puzzled and reflected on the happenstances; surely the Creator of All must have sent Galzu. They, therefore, concluded that indeed, what they had thought to be a fate, the Creator of All had destined. “The Earth to the Earthlings belongs, to preserve and advance them we were intended!” they all concurred. They must equip Mankind with civilisation. They agreed to establish cities of Man and grant them kingship with crown and sceptre. In addition, in the sacred precincts would priesthood be established to worship and serve the Anunnaki as lofty lords. They created four regions, three for Mankind and one restricted for the Anunnaki. The king enquired about Marduk, after listening to what transpired after the death of Dumuzi he demanded that Marduk must be fetched for him to see; he forgave him so he could be reunited among his kins. The king departed with plenty of gold, brought from a far land beyond the oceans. “Give Mankind knowledge, up to a measure secrets of heaven and Earth them teach, Laws of justice and righteousness teach them, then you can depart and leave!” were his last words. At Nippur was a calendar designed for use by Mankind to commemorate the beginning of the human civilisation using human year count (3760 BCE).
The first human city was in Kish (Scepter City) and then from the Sumerians were the “First” of almost everything created in human history. he Anunnaki taught Mankind all manner of craftsmanship, the act of writing and of beer making they showed them. Laws of justice and righteous behaviour in Kish were promulgated. Enki, as commanded by Anu shared the ME with the other Anunnaki; unto Ninurta fifty were given and by trick Inanna obtained ninety-four. Following this event, Marduk was forced to request a city for himself in E.din (Mesopotamia). The cold shoulder he got from Enlil prompted him to march to the ‘House of Anu’ and called Nabu and the Igigi with their offspring unto himself so that he may establish a place for skyships – a spaceport. In no time, the great work began to build a tower whose head the heavens can reach, with burnt bricks was it built. Enlil, having consulted his children, a decision was taken never to give room for Marduk to successfully build his tower in E.din. “To scatter abroad the leader and his followers Enlil thereupon decided, henceforth, their counsels to confuse, their unity to shatter,” Enlil decreed. To achieve this Enlil confounded their language lest they have unity among the workers. This event took place circa 310 AM (3,450 BCE). In each region and every land Enlil made the people speak a different tongue, thus a different form of writing thereafter to each was given, that one to another will not comprehend. Twenty-three kings reigned in Kish within the period of four hundred and eighty years. When Marduk’s coup d’état failed to forcefully establish a spaceport at E.din within the precinct of the First Region (Mesopotamia), he went back to the Land of the Two Narrows (Egypt) to be the master of the Second Region (Africa).
Upon his arrival, and to Marduk’s dismay, Ningishzidda (Thoth or Tehuti) [the Divine Measurer] who had ruled Egypt (Magan) in his absence, Marduk accused him of ruling the land not according to the plan he left behind. Thoth’s decision to display Horus to another land he questioned. For three hundred and fifty years was the hot argument and displeasure among the brothers. Eventually, Enki (Ptah) interfered and pacify Thoth to depart to another land; to a land beyond the oceans did Thoth chose. This took place circa 3113 BCE. In his new domain he became the Winged Serpent and by that year was a new count began (Mayan Long Count Calendar). Marduk as Amun-Ra replaced counting by ten instead of sixty as it were in Sumer; he also introduced solar calendar in the place of lunar calendar of Nippur. He changed the face of Thoth on the sphinx to that of Osiris. He united the Lower and Upper Egypt into one Crown City. A demigod [half man – half Anunnaki (Neteru)], Mena, he appointed as the first king over Egypt, thus commencing the dynasty era. In all things did Enki/Ptah support his son Marduk/Ra in order to establish the Second Region successfully. Ra built temples-pyramids for Anu and Enki. Then, to honour Inanna, the Anunnaki established the Third Region circa 2,800 BCE in the eastern land (Asia). But in this Region, Mankind did not fully blossom and the civilisation in the region did not last for more than a thousand year because Inanna covets lands other than what was allotted to her.
In the Third Region and the Second Region, the matters of resurrection and immortality the Anunnaki gods and demigods began to ponder, from Gilgamesh to Ra. Ra taught the people how to build tombs facing the eastwards and to the priest-scribes a long book he dictated detailing the Afterlife journey. The importance of Gold to the gods and to the temples he taught them. Then the great Ra began to agitate, great were his proclamation that the supremacy to rule the Earth belongs to him. The Age of Aries to him was assigned and he was poised to take over the kingship of the entire lands. Enki and Enlil carefully observed and jointly concluded that the Age of Aries was yet to come; Nannar and Nergal also came to the same conclusion. To all the objections Marduk did not give heed and with the help of Nabu were people recruited in large numbers and told that the time of Marduk has come.
In the First Region, in a land not far from Kish was the Unified City formed, Agade, to be ruled by Inanna’s lover, Sharru-kin whom Enlil appointed as Righteous Regent. However, when Sharru-kin (Sargon of Agade) expanded his city and began to take the soil from where Marduk had attempted to build his Tower in Babylon, hell was let loose. Marduk came down heavily to reestablish his presence in E.din, to reactive the Babili, the Gateway of the Gods. A great fight Inanna put up, so devastating was it that Nergal had to persuade Marduk, for the time being when the celestial sign had not been ascertained, to depart. Marduk agreed and from land to land he travelled to watch the skies. He became Amun, the Unseen One, in the Second Region. When Sharru-kin’s grandson Naram-Sin ascended the throne, Inanna instructed him from the Fourth Region to conquer and take the lands in the Second Region. Enlil was wrath by this encroachment and a curse he put upon Agade. By a bite of a scorpion did Naram-Sin die, by the command of Enlil was Agade wiped out.
After Marduk had become Amun, kingship in the Second Region disintegrated, disorder and confusion reigned. After Agade was wiped out, there was also disorder in the First Region; from Cities of Gods to Cities of Man it moved about, Unug-ki (biblical Erech), Lagash, Urim and Kish, Isin and to faraway place kingship was shifting. Then Enlil, with Anu consulting, kingship in the hands of Nannar deposited; to Urim, in whose soil the divine Heavenly Bright Object remained implanted, kingship for the third time was granted. In Urim a Righteous Shepherd of men Nannar appointed as king, Ur-Nammu was his name. Equity in the lands Ur-Nammu he established, he ended violence and strife and there was abundant prosperity in all the lands.
Marduk, still in exile and wandering, consulted the oracle in the temple at Harran to enquire when his exile shall complete. The Oracle confirmed to him that his period in exile has expired. He announced the coming of a New Age to the Anunnaki gods and they were all disturbed. All the other gods rose in opposition and when Marduk remained adamant, it was agreed that the Seven Weapons of Terror that was brought to Earth by King Alalu should be used to stop him. Until this period Enki was not aware that Enlil had found the weapon where he kept it. A thousand and seven hundred and sixty was the count of Earth years (1,760 AM or 2,000 BCE) when Marduk returned to Babili (Babylon) in the presence of his followers, armed with weapons, to declare his supremacy. On that day, by Enlil signal, a nuke was released to the Mount and the plain in the heart of the Fourth Region, every pricey place that Marduk and Nabu had coveted a vaporizer was released to turn them to burn and crush, fire and brimstones were poured upon the land and seas. When it dawned on the next morning came, “from the west, from the Upper Sea, a stormwind began blowing, the dark brown cloud eastward it directed, toward the settled lands did the cloud spread; wherever it reached, death to all that lives mercilessly it delivered; from the Valley of No Pity, by the brilliance spawned, toward Sumer (shumer) the death was carried.” Anywhere the wind covers, death followed in droves. No one was spared from the nuclear terror, even the gods fled. The water was poisoned and the vegetation withered. From Eridu in the South to Sippar in the north did the Evil Wind overwhelm the land. All the lands south of Babili the Evil Wind devoured the heart of the Second Region it also touched. And as if by a divine hand, Babili (Babylon) itself where Marduk declared his supremacy the Evil Wind spared.
From Enki to Enlil and to all the Anunnaki gods and goddesses, by the sparing of Babili, they accepted as an omen that only by the will of the Creator of All could it have been. The First Region (the Middle East to the North of Mediterranean) was desolate, the Second Region (Africa) was in confusion, the Third Region (Asia) is wounded and the Place of the Celestial Chariots (the spaceports) is no more. Perhaps it was destined to end this way so that a new life may emerge they reasoned. The supremacy of Marduk was proclaimed by the Anunnaki leaders. The rank of fifty, which was hitherto given to Enlil and was kept in waiting for Ninurta was now transferred to Marduk, only Anu was supreme to him. From Babylon he reigned as superior among all the other Anunnaki, unto the Earthling Marduk was the supreme God.
Unto the civilised world that arose thereafter, even unto the Earthlings and among the Igigi was the story of Tiamat retold. In the new Babylonia Epic of the Creation, it was Ea (Enki) who challenged Apsu (the primordial progenitor of the solar system, the Sun), overcame it and assigned its ascendance. Then Ea and Damkida gave birth to Marduk who, when Tiamat renewed conflict and created an army of monsters which Ea could not withstand the attack; it was the young Marduk who rescued the gods and defended them. For this reason, Marduk was proclaimed THE MOST HONORED OF THE GREAT GODS. He was GRANTED KINGSHIP OVER THE ENTIRE UNIVERSE and He became LORD, WHOSE DECREE IS FIRST AMONG GODS. At this dispensation, Marduk moved the world from polytheism where sundry gods are recognised and worshipped to henotheism where Marduk had become the supreme god and the foremost mouthpiece for the Mesopotamian pantheon. Initially, the conquest of Nibiru over the primordial Tiamat during the Celestial Battle was attributed to Enlil as a metaphor, a myth, and now conferred upon Marduk.
The Old Babylonia Empire was established and governed by Marduk. The kings of the Amorites (“westerners”) made up the First Dynasty of Babylon circa 1894-1595 BCE. The entire area was reunited by King Hammurabi (1792 – 1750 BCE). On the Stele of Hammurabi as translated by L. W. King we read from the prologue and epilogue to the Code of Law as follows:
When Anu the Sublime, King of the Anunaki, and Bel, the lord of Heaven and earth, who decreed the fate of the land, assigned to Marduk, the over-ruling son of Ea, God of righteousness, dominion over earthly man, and made him great among the Igigi, they called Babylon by his illustrious name, made it great on earth, and founded an everlasting kingdom in it, whose foundations are laid so solidly as those of heaven and earth; then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I should rule over the black-headed people like Shamash (Utu, son of Nannar the son of Enlil), and enlighten the land, to further the well-being of mankind………..
When Marduk sent me to rule over men, to give the protection of right to the land, I did right and righteousness in ... , and brought about the well-being of the oppressed.
…….let the oppressed, who has a case at law, come and stand before this my image (the stele) as king of righteousness; let him read the inscription, and understand my precious words: the inscription will explain his case to him; he will ﬁnd out what is just, and his heart will be glad, so that he will say:
“Hammurabi is a ruler, who is as a father to his subjects, who holds the words of Marduk in reverence, who has achieved conquest for Marduk over the north and south, who rejoices the heart of Marduk, his lord, who has bestowed beneﬁts for ever and ever on his subjects, and has established order in the land.”
When he reads the record, let him pray with full heart to Marduk, my lord, and Zarpanit, my lady; and then shall the protecting deities and the gods, who frequent E-Sagil (the ziggurat of Marduk at Babylon), graciously grant the desires daily presented before Marduk, my lord, and Zarpanit, my lady.
In reminiscence of the “deities and the gods, who frequent E-Sagil” Hammurabi listed Anu, Bel (Enlil?), Zamama?, Istar (Ishtar), Ea, Shamash (Utu), Sin (Nannar), Adad (Ishkur), Nergal, Nin-tu (Ninmah?), and Nin-karak?.
Babylonia was reputed as “one of the most fertile and rich parts of the ancient world. The vast empire of Babylon came under threat by the increasing power of the Hittite Empire (in Anatolia), and the Kassite tribes in the Zagros. The Kassite tribes which at a point took over the city soon became ‘babylonised.’ The kingdom of Mitanni came from the northern part of Mesopotamia and was soon overpowered by the combined forces of the Hittites and Assyrians. The double temple of the moon god Sin and the sun god Šamaš were unearthed from Mitanni. The Assyrian took away the image of Marduk but the occupation of Babylonia and the exile of the god did not last long. Archaeology findings in Assyria include the temple of Ištar, the head of lamassu from the Old Palace as well as the altar of Tikulti-Ninurta I; in addition, there were the second royal palace and a temple of Anu-Adad. In the twelfth century BCE, the Elamite looted Babylon, captured the statue as well as the stele with the laws of king Hammurabi which was later excavated in the Elamite capital Susa. Under Nebuchadnezzar I (1126 – 1104 BCE) the Babylonians advanced to Elam and received back the statue of Marduk. Under king Aššurnasirpal II (883-859), Assyrian Empire started to grow again but it was not until the era of king Tiglath-pileser III (744-727) was Babylonia and Assyrian culture reintegrated. Twice, the Babylonians claimed their independence under king Marduk-apla-iddin (721-710 and 703, the Biblical Merodach Baladan). In 627 a Babylonian soldier Nabopolassar (Nabû-apla-uṣur) repelled the two governors, Sin-šumlišir and Sin-šar-iškun, who were sent by the Assyrian king that succeeded Aššurbanipal (668-631). Nabopolassar was recognised as king on 23 November 626 – the beginning of the Neo-Babylonia Empire. Prince Nebuchadnezzar (meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") married the daughter of king Cyaxares of Medes to form an alliance which eventually attacked Assyria and Nineveh fell in May 612 BCE. Nebuchadnezzar died in 562 and was succeeded by his son Amel-Marduk who was almost immediately murdered and replaced by his brother-in-law Neriglissar or Nergal-sharezer (559 – 556). He, in turn, was succeeded by Labashi-Marduk who was murdered by Nabonidus (Nabû-naʾid, "Nabu is praised") who obtained power by a coup d'état. Ancient sources like the Verse Account of Nabonidus call him a madman and a blasphemer, who preferred the cult of Sin (Nannar) in Harran above that of Marduk. This is confirmed by the Nabonidus Chronicle, which informs us about the king's neglect of the Akitu festival. Akitu Festival is an annual celebration of the supremacy of Marduk and Nabû throughout the Babylonia Empire and beyond. In Palmyra, the temple of Baal (Marduk) was inaugurated on the same date as Akitu. At the beginning of the third century CE, it was still celebrated in Emessa in Syria, to honour the god Elagabal; the Roman emperor Heliogabalus (218-222) even introduced the festival in Ital.
From the many names of the kings from across the nations and different dynasty in the ancient world until the edge of the Common Era it can easily be deduced, to a large extent, to whom the people’s allegiance is – to the Enki clan or to that of Enlil. As a matter of fact, when Cyrus the Great, a Persian, overran Babylon he attributed his success to the god Marduk. On the Cyrus Cylinder he proclaimed as follows:
“When I went as harbinger of peace i[nt]o Babylon I founded my sovereign residence within the palace amid celebration and rejoicing. Marduk, the great lord, bestowed on me as my destiny the great magnanimity of one who loves Babylon, and I every day sought him out in awe. My vast troops marched peaceably in Babylon, and the whole of [Sumer] and Akkad had nothing to fear. I sought the welfare of the city of Babylon and all its sanctuaries. As for the population of Babylon […, w]ho as if without div[ine intention] had endured a yoke not decreed for them, I soothed their weariness, I freed them from their bonds(?). Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced at [my good] deeds, and he pronounced a sweet blessing over me, Cyrus, the king who fears him, and over Cambyses, the son [my] issue, [and over] my all my troops, that we might proceed further at his exalted command.”
In addition, Cyrus the Great was reputed to have reversed the misdeed carried out by Nabonidus who relocated the statues of the gods and goddesses of Sumer and Akkad from the remote shrines into the capital, in defiance to the Anunnaki order and recognition of Marduk’s lordship over the Age of Aries (2020 BCE – 140 CE). Cyrus reinstalled the statues of Marduk and Nabu as the chief god. At this point in age, the gods and goddesses had withdrawn from direct contacts from the common man and their existence was being confined to myths except among the priests and those with deep knowledge about their existence. The people of Mesopotamia clearly identified that once the statue of a god is captured and relocated to another city or vicinity, the protection and blessings of that god will go with the statue to the new locality. The use of statue became so widespread and duplicated everywhere to no limit, this was the natural religion found in every city and among the remote dwellers of the Earth.
Ancient History Encyclopedia
Code of Hammurabi
History Begins at Sumer – Samuel Noah Kramer
The Babylonia Epic of Atra Hasis (Sumerian: Ziusudra)
The Enûma eliš
The Epic of Gilgamesh
The Lost Book of Enki – Zechariah Sitchin
 Pronounced eyah, and it means “He Whose Home is Water.” Also known as EN.KINUDIMMUD, he is the first son of King Anu through a concubine, a great scientist. His “celestial chariot” was piloted by ANZU. He was also known as (the Artful Fashioner).
 A.k.a. Ša.A.Me: The planet was reported to have a hazardous atmosphere and their scientist identified that a very rare metal known as Gold in good quantity would need to be vapourised and deployed as the chemtrail is used today in the human atmosphere. Its orbital period, a Shar, equals 3,600 Earth years; it became the twelfth member of the solar system after the Celestial Battle, that is, the collision between the Nibiru moons and a primordial planet called Tiamat which gave birth to the asteroids belt and the Earth.
 Tiamat, figuratively, was called Tehom in the Bible, the primordial dragon (Psalm 74:13) that had to be killed before the Earth could be established. Tiamat was the parent planet that Nibiru satellites collided with and split it into two when the Nibiru was first drawn into the solar system. The top head of Tiamat became the planet Earth while the smashed lower part became “the asteroids belt” (the Hammered Bracelet). KINGU, Tiamat's main satellite, becomes the Earth’s Moon.
 The second son of King Anu through his consort or half-sister and official wife, Antu. Being born through a half-sister, just like Isaac was born to Abraham by half-sister Sarah, he became the heir apparent (the inheritor of the royal promise) ahead of his elder brother, Enki.
 The Anunnaki workforce from Nibiru. 300 workers were stationed on Mars to facilitate the transportation of the gold from Mars to Nibiru. 600 were on Earth to mine the gold and transport it to Mars.
 The supreme ruler of the alien’s Nibiru planet, he deposed his uncle, Alalu, to become the new King. Alalu earlier ascended the throne though he was neither the Legal Heir nor the Firstborn Son. Anu was appointed as the king’s cupbearer and a king in waiting by a special arrangement. It was Alalu who commanded the first expedition to seek for gold in the Asteroid Belt but the journey ended in a disaster. Following Nibiru’s persistent deteriorating condition Anu called out for a combat saying, “let the winner be the king.” The combat he won, the throne he took and in shame Alalu stole a missile-throwing chariot (spacecraft) with the seven Weapons of Terror and departed stealthily. It was the deposed monarchy who discovered that there was gold on Earth planet and communicated the availability of the life-saving substance to the home planet. Alalu was the father of Damkina, the wife of E.A. Alalu was again deposed to Mars from Earth where he died.
 A.k.a. NINHURSAG: the daughter of King Anu by another woman other than the mothers of Enki and Enlil. She is a nurse or a Chief Medical Officer who was later given the title Ninti (“Lady of Life”). She had a male child for Enlil and a female child for Enki.
 (He Who Knows the Heavens): A great pilot. It was he who volunteered, and King Anu approved, to accompany Alalu to Mars where Alalu died from the poisonous genital of King Anu which he bit off and swallows during a fight when the King visited the Earth. He became the commander of the 300 Igigi who was in charge of the facilities in Mars. He was killed by Ninurta after he stole “The Tablet of Destinies” (devices used in Mission Control Center to track and control orbits and trajectories; later on, a record of unalterable decisions) from Enlil’s innermost sanctuary. Marduk supervised his burial in Mars.
 A kind of data-disc that encoded formula for all the aspects of science and civilization
 Devices used in Mission Control Center to track and control orbits and trajectories; later on, a record of unalterable decisions.
 Nannar's city in Shumer and the land's capital three times (including at the time of the Great Calamity); a thriving center of culture, industry, and international trade